DYNAMICS OF FORMATION OF THE SQUARE OF BEETS PLANTS OF BEETS DEPENDING ON VARIETY SPECIAL FEATURES AND TERMS OF SEEDING UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE RIGHT-FOREST STEPPE OF UKRAINE
Palamarchuk Inna – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Landscape Management, Forestry, Horticulture and Viniculture, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsya, Solnyschaya St. 3, e-mail: email@example.com).
Table beet (Beta vulgaris) is a two-year vegetable root plant of the Lobodovy family (Chenopodiaceae). It is an indispensable rootstock of the borscht group, widely used and valuable for baby, diet and prophylactic nutrition. Due to the high stickiness, the root vegetables of the table beet are well preserved in the winter and therefore are used fresh all year round. For yielding crops with high quality and good taste varieties should be selected according to climatic, soil conditions and soil structure, as well as adhering to a technology of cultivation in which the plants would be provided with all the important factors for their growth and development. In order to ensure a high yield of table beet, it is important to select the optimal sowing time. Sowing time has an impact not only on yield table beet, but also on its quality, which determines the germination of beet root and their use. Therefore, there is a need to study the optimal timing of sowing beet seed in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine.
The results of studies on the dynamics of the formation of the area of leaves of plants of beetroot canteen depending on varietal characteristics and sowing time in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Right-Bank Ukraine are presented. The dependence of the growth and development of beetroot plants on varietal characteristics and sowing dates, as well as on weather conditions that were in the studied time, was revealed. The largest number of leaves in the phase of intensive root formation was formed by plants with a sowing period of I decade of May: 13.3 pcs. / plant – Bordo Kharkivskiy, 13.1 pcs. / plant – Opolskiy. The greatest mass of the root crop in the phase of intensive root formation was planted at a sowing period of the third decade of April: the Bordo Kharkivskiy – 72.4 g, the variety Opolskiy – 43.5 g. The same pattern was observed when taking into account the mass of the aerial part of beetroot. In the Bordo Kharkivskiy variety, it varied from 92.4 g to 87.5 g depending on the sowing time, in the Opolskiy variety from 33.7 g to 31.7 g, that is, the beet plants of the Bordo Kharkivskiy cultivar formed a significantly larger mass of the aerial part in comparison with the Opolskiy variety. Plants were sown with the largest leaf area at a sowing period of the 3rd decade of April: in the Bordo Kharkivskiy – 1.2 – 4.0 thousand m2 / ha, in the Opolskiy variety – 1.0 – 2.3 thousand m2 / ha. According to the results of the crop accounting, it was found that it depended on the variety and sowing period of beetroot. On average, over the years of research, the highest yield was observed with a sowing period of the third decade of April: 63.1 t / ha for the Bordo Kharkivskiy variety, 55.9 t / ha for the Opolskiy variety.
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According to the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine from 17.03.2020 № 409. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry is included in the List of scientific professional publications of Ukraine Category "B" in agricultural sciences (specialties) - 101, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206.