VARIABILITY OF BEAN VARIETIES SAMPLE BY YIELD STRUCTURE STRUCTURE AND ADAPTABILITY
Mazur Olena Vasylivna – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Lecturer of the Department of botany, genetics and plant protection, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna Str. 3).
The study of quantitative characteristics controlled by polymer genes is rather complicated due to their significant variability, depends on the environment conditions, and the general picture of their inheritance and variability is masked by the modifying action of heterosis in the first generation. New varieties should have a balanced development of all elements of productivity, resistance to abiotic and biotic factors, and not just the maximum value of the individual characteristic.
Plant growing conditions are important in forming their resistance to various diseases. In nature, pathogens and plants are affected by the weather conditions that are constantly changing. The research objective was to determine the variability level and to identify the patterns of inheritance of valuable commercial-biological traits for the selection of productive and adaptive forms of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The research was conducted during 2014–2016 in the conditions of the research plot of the Department of Plant Production, Selection and Bioenergetic Cultures of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University. The region of the research by its natural conditions refers to the central subzone of the Right Bank Forest-Steppe. The hydrothermal conditions of the 2014 and 2016 surveys were typical of the average yearly indices of the research area and the year 2015 was characterized by a significant deficiency of precipitation and high temperature air conditions. The research material were the varieties of common bean provided by the National Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine and hybrid combinations obtained as a result of intervarietal crossings. Sowing was carried out by the temperature regime of soil 10–12 °С at the depth of seeding and stable increase of average daily air temperature. The placement of the plots was consistent, the varieties were sown in a six-time repetition. The wide-row sowing with a width of rows of 45 cm was used. The total area of the plots was 1.35 m², and the account one is 1.0 m². Sowing was carried out with the seeding rate of 18 similar seeds per 1 linear meter, the standard was placed in 10 numbers. The general adaptability of the common bean varieties for the research years was determined by regression coefficient (bi) and the stability variance (Sі2). Assessment of the morphological features variation was carried out by the variationcoefficient (V, %). The ecological variation coefficient (Vе, %) was determined by the ratio of the average sign to its standard deviation. The determination of ultrastability (Nom) and agronomic stability coefficient (As) was made. Conclusions. As a result of the three year research, it was established that the highest resistance to bacteriosis had such varieties as UD0303601, UD0303526, UD0303543 and UD0303557. The varieties UD0303601, UD0303526 were resistant under adverse growing conditions; the highest resistance to bacterial wilding, including under adverse growing conditions, was provided by the varieties UD0300414, UD0301063 and UD0303543; according to the resistance to variegation the following varieties were selected: UD0303543, UD0303557, and UD0303610 (they were better under all growing conditions).
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Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded in 1995; it was entitled as Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
It has been named as Agriculture and Forestry since 2015.
Listed in the updated list of scientific professional editions of Ukraine on agricultural sciences under the name Agriculture and Forestry (Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of May 16, 2016; No. 515).