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space SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS OF VINNITSA NATIONAL AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY

Issue №: 4 (15)

Published: 2019.12.01
DOI: 10.37128/2707-5826-2019-3-4


Description:
Publications are devoted to the reserch of technological methods of cultivation of crops, preservation of soil fertility, through the cultivation of perennial grasses and legumes, alternatives to the marginal lands utilization, greening agricultural production, the use of selection indices for the identification of source material, reproduction.

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THE ROLE OF PULSE CROPS (ALFALFA, SAINFOIN) IN SOIL FERTILITY ENHANCEMENT

DOI: 10.37128/2707-5826-2019-3-4-12
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Aleksidze Guram – Academician, Doctor of Biological Science, Professor, Georgian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, (0102, 51 I. Javakhishvili str., Tbilisi, Georgia, e-mail: guram_aleksidze@yahoo.com)

Lolishvili Revaz – Doctor of Agricultural Science, Georgian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, (0102, 51 I. Javakhishvili str., Tbilisi, Georgia, e-mail: rezo. lolishvili@gmail.com)

 

 

Annotation

 The issues of soil fertility reduction in Georgia are reviewed in the article. The paper deals with the causes of soil degradation and presents figures showing current situation about degraded land areas and its fertility level. The role of pulse crops in soil fertility enhancement is evaluated. Legumes help in improving the soil physical environment, increasing soil microbial activity, and restoring organic matter, and also has smothering effect on weed.

In 91 years after the development of mountain and steppe black soil, percentage of humus of these soils decreased by 21-27%. Annual losses of humus 0.30-2.0 t/ha. Much less than the annual losses of humus in soils with relatively low fertility: the black earth of South – 0,30-0,80 t/ha, sod-carbonate – 0,50-1,5 t/ha, brown-carbonate – 0,40-1,60 t/ha, meadow-brown-washed – 1,10 t/ha, taupe – 1,30 t/ha and meadow-alluvial-carbonate – 0,80-1,80 MT/ha. For the period through anthropogenic load reserves of humus mining and ordinary Chernozem decreased by 22-25%, and the nutritional elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively, at 32-16, and 24%. Stocks of humus of chernozems of the South, grey-brown, meadow brown and alluvial soils decreased respectively 22-20-17 and 24%. It should be noted the fact that through the implementation of farming and the large number of returned plant residues on the space occupied vegetable crops the contents and stocks of humus more than on land mastered under crops. Sowing of perennial grasses and introduction as fertilizer straw and green manure legumes increases soil fertility and provides an increase in reserves of humus 2-3 shades within three years. The sowing of winter crops and legume mixtures (clover-bluegrass-bentgrass) on the slopes of 150% is the best way to restore and improve the erosion properties of soils. The use of alfalfa with bollaram contributes to the demineralization of saline soils, an increase in grain yield from 1.5 to 3.0 t/ha. 2 years after use of alfalfa salinity reclamation of soils is not marked. The efficiency of recovery of soils polluted by pesticides is evident in the third year of the experiment, after planting corn.

 

Keywords: soil fertility, degradation, balance of humus, pulse crops.

List of references

1.Kovbasyuk P. (2017) Vyiraschivaem lyutsernu na semena.[We grow alfalfa for seeds]. Propozytsiia – Proposition. URL: https://propozitsiya. com/ vyrashchivaem-lyucernu-na-semena. [in Russian].

2.Bazylevych N.Y., Tytlyanova A.A., Smyrnova V.V., Rodyn L.E., Nechaeva N.G., Levyn F.Y. (1978). Metodyi izucheniya biologicheskogo krugovorota v razlichnyih prirodnyih zonah [Methods of studying the biological cycle in various natural zones]. Moskva: Mysl`  [in Russian].

3.Kordunyanu P.N. (1985). Biologicheskiy krugovorot elementov pitaniya selskohozyaystvennyih kultur v intensivnom zemledelii [Biological cycle of nutrients of crops in intensive farming]. Ky`shy`nёv: Shty`ny`cza.  [in Russian].

4.Butenko A.O., Sobko M.H. (2013). Vplyv rehuliatoriv rostu na nasinnievu produktyvnist liutserny posivnoi. [Influence of growth regulators on seed productivity  of  alfalfa  sowing].   Visnyk   Sumskoho   natsionalnoho  ahrarnoho universytetu – Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. Issue 11 (26).  138-142. [in Ukrainian].

5.Hetman N.Ya (2017). Shliakhy pidvyshchennia produktyvnosti liutserny posivnoi v umovakh Lisostepu Pravoberezhnoho. [Ways to improve the productivity of alfalfa sowing in the forest-steppe of the Right Bank]. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo - Feed and feed production. Issue. 83. 46-51. [in Ukrainian].

6.Lolishvili R.T. (2006). Produktivnost i krugovorot osnovnyih elementov pitaniya [Productivity and the cycle of basic nutrients]. Moskva: Agrarnaya nauka. 10-13. [in Russian].

7.Lolishvili R.T. (2006). Dinamika gumusnogo fonda chernozyoma obyiknovennogo posle raspashki tselinyi pri funktsionirovanii razlichnyih agrofitotsenozov [The dynamics of the humus fund of chernozem ordinary after plowing virgin soil during the functioning of various agrophytocenose]. Soobshheny`ya Akademy`y` sel`skoxozyajstvennyx nauk Gruzy`y` – Communications of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Georgia.  141-145. [in Russian].

8.Shevel I.V. (2000). Ahrobiolohichnyi potentsial liutserny. [Agrobiological potential of alfalfa]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky – Bulletin of agrarian science. 7.  21-24. [in Ukrainian].

9.Tyshchenko O. D., Andrusiva L.V. (2002). Adaptyvnist sortiv liutserny i yii znachennia v oderzhanni stabilnykh urozhaiv nasinnia. [Adaptability of alfalfa varieties and its importance in obtaining stable seed yields]. Ahroekolohichnyi zhurnal – Agro-ecological journal. 1. 44-48. [in Ukrainian].

10.Tsyhanskyi V.I., Tsyhanska O.I. (2016) Vplyv vapnuvannia hruntu ta peredposivnoho obroblennia nasinnia na formuvannia yakisnykh pokaznykiv sukhoi rechovyny liutserny posivnoi v umovakh lisostepu pravoberezhnoho. [Influence of liming of soil and pre-sowing treatment of seeds on formation of qualitative indicators of dry matter of alfalfa sowing in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the right-bank].  Zbirnyk naukovyx  pracz. Silske gospodarstvo ta lisivnycztvo – Collection of scientific works.  Agriculture and forestry. 2016. 4. 110-117. [in Ukrainian].

 

 

All journal issues

About journal

Topics of the journal:

Topics of the Journal:

Program goals (basic principles): questions of technology and efficiency of crop production, scientific and industrial aspects of agronomic specialties, ecology and forestry.

Articles on such scientific problems are accepted for printing:

Plant production, current state and prospects for development.

Agrochemistry and modern aspects of fertilizers and biologically active substances application.

Feed production, current state and prospects for development.

Selection, seed production, seed science and varieties.

Protection of plants.

Soil managment and soil quality improvement.

Forestry and gardening.

Vegetables and mushrooms, current status and development trends.

Ecology and environmental protection.

Theory and history of agricultural sciences and forestry.

Modern directions of development of arable land and forestry.

Innovative and investment activities in agriculture and forestry.

Directions and efficiency of crop production

Bioenergy resources of crop production and forestry.

Production of renewable energy from biological resources.

Organic farming, the main area of development and production of organic products.

Agriculture and modern crop rotation and soil cultivation.

Horticulture and viticulture.

Processing and storage of crop products.

Beekeeping, current status and development trends.

Contemporary biological research in crop production and forestry.

Progressive technologies of the agricultural complex.

Psychological and pedagogical problems of agrarian education.

The young scientist opinion.

 

Key information:
ISSN (print): 2707-5826
DOI: 10.37128/2707-5826
Key information:
ISSN (print): 2707-5826
DOI: 10.37128/2707-5826
Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded  in 1995;  it was entitled as  Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
It has been named as Agriculture and Forestry since 2015.
 
Certificate of mass media state registration No. 21363-11163 Р of June 09, 2015
1. Founder (co-founder): Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
2. Type of publication: journal.
3. Publication status: domestic.
4. Title(s) of publication: Agriculture and Forestry.
5. Language(s) of the publication: Ukrainian, Russian, and English.
6. Spread: nationwide.
7. Categories of readers: students, postgraduates, scientists, employees of agroindustrial complex, state bodies of management.
8. Program goals (basic principles): questions of technology and efficiency of crop cultivation, scientific and industrial aspects of agronomic specialties, ecology and forestry.
9. Estimated periodicity of issue, volume (in conventional printed sheets) and format of publication: twice a half year, 7.5-15 conventional printed sheets, format: A4.
10. Legal address of the founder: 21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna Street, 3; telephones: (0432) 56-03-13; 35-70-84, fax: (0432) 43-80-25; e-mail:
11. Location of the editorial office: 21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna Street, 3.
12. Type of publication by purpose: agriculture and forestry, scientific production.
History of journal:

Journal History:

Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded  in 1995;  it was entitled as  Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.

In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.

It has been named as Agriculture and Forestry since 2015.

Listed in the updated list of scientific professional editions of Ukraine on agricultural sciences under the name Agriculture and Forestry (Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of May 16, 2016; No. 515).