THE DURATION OF THE GROWING SEASON AND THE INTERPHASE PERIODS OF SOYBEAN VARIETIES DEPENDING ON THE TIMING OF SOWING AND SEEDING RATES
Polishchuk Ivan – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor of the Plant Production, Selection and Bioenergetic Cultures of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna Str. 3).
Yurchenko Nataliia – postgraduate of the Plant Production, Selection and Bioenergetic Cultures of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna Str. 3).
Polishchuk Mikhaylo – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Agriculture, Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna Str. 3).
The growing season of soybean varieties is due to their genetic characteristics. However, both the general period of vegetation of soybean varieties and the interphase period depend on the influence of the weather conditions of the years of research, as well as on the technological factors to which the sowing period depends on the soil temperature and the seed rate. The early spring of recent years causes intense warming of the soil and promotes sowing of all crops, including soybeans. According to research results, soybeans are a fairly plastic crop, but are characterized by an increased demand for heat and moisture. On demand for light belongs to the plants of a short day. Need for the heat is uneven and the environmental temperature requirements increase from seed germination to germination, later from flowering phase to seed formation, and during maturation the heat requirements decrease The need for early sowing of soybeans is conditioned so as not to lose the moisture of the topsoil and to obtain friendly and complete seedlings.However, under such conditions, the return of spring colds and insufficient heat and light may affect the length of the sowing, ladder-first trifoliate and budding periods. The results of studies of the duration of interphase periods and vegetation of soybean varieties of different groups of ripeness depending on the sowing time according to the soil temperature regime of 6°C, 8 °C, 10 °C, 12 °C, and seed rates of 600, 700,800 and 900 thousand pieces per 1 ha were conducted. Weather conditions are analyzed and the influence of the studied factors on the features of the formation of linear plant sizes and generative organs and productivity is studied. It was found that the duration of interphase periods, depending on the timing of sowing over soil temperature conditions, was longer in the early stages and decreased according to an increase in the rate of sowing seeds and sowing at a later date, while the total duration of the growing season and individual interphase periods is determined by the genetic characteristics of soybean varieties of different ripeness groups. The conclusions are made according to the results of the research and have scientific and applied value for the producers in cultivation of soybeans in the conditions of the Forest Steppe of the Right Bank.
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Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded in 1995; it was entitled as Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
It has been named as Agriculture and Forestry since 2015.
Listed in the updated list of scientific professional editions of Ukraine on agricultural sciences under the name Agriculture and Forestry (Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of May 16, 2016; No. 515).