PRODUCTIVITY OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS DEPENDING ON THE ELEMENTS OF THE GROWING TECHNOLOGY
Palamarchuk Vitalii Dmytrovych – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor of the department of plant production, selection and bioenergetic cultures Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, Sonyachna st., 3 email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Pidlubnyi Vladyslav Fyodorovych – Assistant of the Department of Computer Science and Economic Cybernetics, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, 3 Sonyachna Street, email: email@example.com).
The article deals with the solution of significant scientific issues - increasing the yield of sunflower hybrids by optimizing the basic elements of cultivation technology. The research was conducted in the period of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 in the experimental field of VNAU on the basis of SRF “Agronomichne”, which is located in the village of Agronomichne, Vinnytsia region. Researches devoted to the effects of foliar fertilization invastigated two hybrids of sunflower of the middle-early maturity group: Bosphor and Sanai MR, the study of the impact of sowing dates and the system of basic tillage early-ripe Antey, medium-early NA sumo 2017 and medium-ripe Tutti. The soil in the experimental plot is gray forest medium loam. According to the results of measurements, the shift of sowing dates towards later years in the conditions of research caused a decrease in plant height (by 4.0-18.0 cm) of all studied forms, in comparison with the early sowing period. As for the location on the stem of the basket, mostly all plants they leaned down, except for plants of the hybrid Antey in late sowing and NA sumo 2017 - in the second, in which the baskets were located at an angle of 45oC to the soil surface. During the harvest in all variants, the seeds from the baskets were threshed very well. The largest diameter of the basket was formed in hybrids Antey, NS sumo 2017 and Tutti for sowing in the second term (April 29 - May 5 at a soil temperature of + 10-12 ° C) and was, respectively, 16.4; 16.3 and 16.5 cm. In the hybrid NS sumo 2017 this figure was almost the same for both the first and second sowing dates - 16.3 and 16.2 cm. The weight of 1000 grains and the weight of seeds from one basket was the largest (39.6- 53.5 g) in all studied hybrids during the first sowing period. However, the number of seeds in the basket varied over time depending on the hybrid. Thus, the largest number of seeds in the basket was in the hybrid Antey for sowing in the second term – 1255 pcs., Hybrid NS sumo 2017 – in the third term (1593 pcs.) And hybrid Tutti - for sowing in the first term (1257 pcs.). The highest yield of hybrids Antey, NS sumo 2017, Tutti was obtained for sowing in the early period (April 18-22) – respectively 3.54 t / ha, 3.31 t / ha, 3.50 t / ha. Implementation of foliar fertilization with microfertilizer Avangard R Sunflower in the phase of 6-8 pairs of sunflower leaves promotes productivity in the hybrid Bosphorus – 3.08 and Sanai MR - 2.99 t / ha, which is 12.43 and 11.17% more than in the control. The highest yield was established, on average for two years, was for board tillage - early-maturing hybrid Antey – 2.72 t / ha, medium-early sumo 2017 - 2.79 t / ha and medium-ripe Tutti – 3.05 t / ha, which by 0.32 t / ha, 0.19 and 0.24 t / ha, respectively, exceeded the yield of the experiment with surface treatment. With flat cultivation, the yield of sunflower hybrids averaged over two years - early ripening Antey - 2.58 t / ha, medium-early sumo 2017 - 2.63 t / ha and medium-ripe Tutti - 2.87 t / ha. Concerning the oil content depending on the sowing date, it should be noted that the highest oil content was observed in the studied hybrids Antey (49.3%) and Tutti (50.3%) when using the second sowing period April 29 – May 5 -12 ° C)), and in the hybrid NS sumo 2017 the highest oil content was observed when applying the early sowing period (I - April 18-22 (+ 6-8 ° C) - 50.2%. Seed husk was the highest in the hybrid Tutti - 22.05-23.25%, the smallest in the precocious hybrid Antey - 20.55-21.65%, and the smallest in the hybrid NS sumo 2017 - 20.50-21.65%. Sowing dates did not significantly affect the seed husk by years of research in all hybrids.
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Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded in 1995; it was entitled as Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
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According to the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine from 17.03.2020 № 409. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry is included in the List of scientific professional publications of Ukraine Category "B" in agricultural sciences (specialties) - 101, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206.