logo

Сільське господарство та лісівництво

space SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS OF VINNITSA NATIONAL AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY

Issue №: 1 (16)

Published: 2020.05.28
DOI: 10.37128/2707-5826-2020-1


Description:
Випуск журнала присвячено вивченню оптимізації технологічних прийомів вирощування сільськогосподарських культур. Особливу роль відведено впливу бобових культур на покращення родючості грунту, адаптивній селекції, інтродукції малопоширених декоративних видів, екології та охорони навколишнього середовища, зокрема, впливу хімізації на забруднення грунту та зернової продукції пестицидами, методам боротьби із шкодочинними об'єктами.

Read about journal

POLLUTION OF SOIL WITH HEAVY METALS WHILE GROWING PERENNIAL GRASSES

DOI: 10.37128/2707-5826-2020-1-15
PDF Повернутись

Tkachuk Oleksandr – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University. (21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna St. 3, e-mail tkachukop@ukr.net).

Annotation

Total arable land in Ukraine amounts to 32.4 million hectares, about 2.6 million hectares or 8% is from soils contaminated with heavy metals. The widespread distribution of such soils and the subsequent chemicalisation of crop and agriculture lead to disruption of agrocenoses. The situation is complicated by the accumulation of more than one heavy metal at the same time in the soil. In such a condition, a synergistic effect is shown in relation to the soil biota - an increase in toxic effects. This requires finding ways to reduce soil poisoning by heavy metals on an environmental footing. The purpose of the article is to study the influence of growing perennial grasses on the total contamination of soil with heavy metals.

Field research was conducted during 2013 – 2018 at the Agricultural Research Institute of the Vinnytsia National Agrarian University. Soil on the experimental site

– gray medium loam. The effect on the change in the total soil contamination by heavy metals of six species of legumes of perennial grasses were studied: alfalfa sowing (Medicago sativa I.), meadow clover (Trifolium pratense L.), sand aspartate (Onobrychis arenaria Kit.), White turmeric (Melilus albus L.), the horned (Lotus corniculatus L.) glacier, and the eastern goat (Galega orientalis Lam.). The determination of the content of gross and mobile forms of heavy metals in soil: lead, cadmium, copper and zinc was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry according to DSTU 4362:2004, DSTU 4770 (2, 3, 9):2007. According to standardized methods, the coefficient of concentration of heavy metals in the soil and the total index of soil contamination with heavy metals were calculated.

Growing sand aspartame for two years reduced the concentration of lead in soil by 74.8%, horned glacier – 60.6%, clover meadow – by 49.5%, white clover – by 39.4%, alfalfa sowing – by 4.0%. At the same time, the two-year-old eastern goat cultivation did not affect the change in the concentration of lead in the soil. After two years of growing sand aspartame, the cadmium concentration ratio decreased by 96.5%, after clover meadow – by 94.2%, alfalfa sowing – by 90.7%, and horned glacier – by 16.3%. After two years of growing white clover and goat eastern, the coefficient of cadmium concentration in the soil did not change. After two years of cultivation of sand aspartame, the coefficient of copper concentration in the soil decreased by 11.9%, after white – by 5.7%, goat eastern – by 4.4%, glacier-horned – by 3.1%, clover meadow – by 1.3% and after the cultivation of alfalfa sowing, the coefficient of copper concentration in the soil did not change. The two-year cultivation of sand aspartame helped to reduce the zinc concentration ratio by 67.5%, the growth of horned lollipop – by 55.0%, of white clover – by 52.5%, of eastern goat – by 40.0%, of clover meadow – by 27.5%. At the same time, growing alfalfa sowing for two years does not change the zinc concentration factor in the soil.

Four-year cultivation of sand aspartic helps to reduce the concentration of lead in soil by 74.8%, four-year cultivation of goat eastern – by 55.6%, glacial horn – by 42.4%, alfalfa sowing – by 39.4%. Four-year cultivation of alfalfa sowing reduces the concentration of cadmium in the soil by 96.5%, compared with the two-year cultivation of alfalfa sowing, and the rest of herbs – by 97.7%. During the four years of vegetation of alfalfa sowing and goat eastern the coefficient of concentration of copper in the soil decreases by 98.2%, the horned glacier – decreases by 96.9%, aspartame sand – by 93.8%. Four years of horned glacier cultivation reduces the concentration of zinc in soil by 90.0%, four years of cultivation of alfalfa sowing and goat grazing – by 87.5%, and aspartic sand by 72.5%.

The two-year cultivation of all the studied legumes of perennial grasses reduced the total indicator of soil contamination by heavy metals. In particular, after two years of cultivation of sand asparagus, it decreased by 2.11, after growing clover meadow – by 1.44, horned gluten – by 1.03, alfalfa sowing – by 0.82, eastern goat – by 0.26. In the four-year period of cultivation of sand aspartame, the total indicator of soil contamination by heavy metals decreased by 4.00, after four years of cultivation of the Eastern goat – by 3.97, of the horned glacier – by 3.82, of alfalfa sowing – decreased by 3.80.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil, total pollution, perennial legumes.

List of references

1.Ylyn V.B. (1991). Tiazholуe metallу v systeme pochva-rastenye. [Heavy metals in the soil-plant system]. Novosybyrsk: Nauka, syb. otd. [in Russian].

2.Huralchuk Zh.Z. (1994). Mekhanyzmу ustoichyvosty rastenyi k tiazhelуm metallam. [Mechanisms of plant resistance to heavy metals]. Fyzyolohyia y byokhymyia kulturnуkh rastenyi – Physiology and biochemistry of cultivated plants. Kyev. Vols. 26, № 2. 107 – 117. [in Ukrainian].

3.Evseeva T., Yuraneva Y. (2003). Mekhanyzmу postuplenyia, raspredelenyia y detoksykatsyy tiazhelуkh metallov u rastenyi. [Mechanisms of receipt, distribution and detoxification of heavy metals by plants]. Vestn. yn-ta byolohyy – Journal of the Institute of Biology. Sуktуvkar. № 69. 1–13. [in Russian].

4.Glime G.M. (2015). Bryophyte ecology. URL:http: www.bryoecol.mtu.edu. [in English].

5.Grodzinska K., Szarek-Lukashevska G. (2001). Response of mosses to the heavy metal deposition in Poland – an overview. Environ. Pollut. Vols. 114. № 3. 443–451. [in English].

6.Terek O.I. (2004). Mekhanizmy adaptatsii ta stiikosti roslyn do nespryiatlyvykh faktoriv dovkillia. [Mechanisms of adaptation and resistance of plants to adverse environmental factors]. Zhurn. ahrobiol. ta ekolohii – Journal of Agrobiology and Ecology. Vols.1. № 1–2. 41–56. [in Ukrainian].

7.Zasiekin D.A. (2000). Vazhki metaly u nasinni kormovykh kultur. [Heavy metals in fodder crop seeds]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky – Bulletin of agrarian science. Kyiv. № 5. 56 – 58. [in Ukrainian].

8.Cui Y.L. (2004) Transfer of metals fromsoil to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environment International, № 30. P. 785–791. [in English].

9.Davis S.R., Cousins R.J. (2000). Metallothionein expression in animals: A physiological perspective on function. J. Nutr. № 130. Р. 1085–1088. [in English].

10.Francesco B. (2011). The Role of Food and Nutrition System Approaches in Tackling Hidden Hunger. Int. J. Env. Res. Public. Health. Vols. 8 (2). 358 – 373. [in English].

11.Foyer C.H., Harbinson J. (2005). Redox homeostasis and antiox idant signaling. A metabolic interface between stress perception and physiological respons es. Plant Cell. Vols. 17, № 5. 1866–1876. [in English].

12.Gechev T., Gadjiev I., Breusgem E. (2002). Hydrogen peroxide protects tobacco from oxidative stress by inducing a set of antioxidant enzymes. Cell Mol. Life Sci. Vols. 59. 708–714. [in English].

All journal issues

About journal

Topics of the journal:

Topics of the Journal:

Program goals (basic principles): questions of technology and efficiency of crop production, scientific and industrial aspects of agronomic specialties, ecology and forestry.

Articles on such scientific problems are accepted for printing:

Plant production, current state and prospects for development.

Agrochemistry and modern aspects of fertilizers and biologically active substances application.

Feed production, current state and prospects for development.

Selection, seed production, seed science and varieties.

Protection of plants.

Soil managment and soil quality improvement.

Forestry and gardening.

Vegetables and mushrooms, current status and development trends.

Ecology and environmental protection.

Theory and history of agricultural sciences and forestry.

Modern directions of development of arable land and forestry.

Innovative and investment activities in agriculture and forestry.

Directions and efficiency of crop production

Bioenergy resources of crop production and forestry.

Production of renewable energy from biological resources.

Organic farming, the main area of development and production of organic products.

Agriculture and modern crop rotation and soil cultivation.

Horticulture and viticulture.

Processing and storage of crop products.

Beekeeping, current status and development trends.

Contemporary biological research in crop production and forestry.

Progressive technologies of the agricultural complex.

Psychological and pedagogical problems of agrarian education.

The young scientist opinion.

 

Key information:
ISSN (print): 2707-5826
DOI: 10.37128/2707-5826
Key information:
ISSN (print): 2707-5826
DOI: 10.37128/2707-5826
Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded  in 1995;  it was entitled as  Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
It has been named as Agriculture and Forestry since 2015.
 
Certificate of mass media state registration No. 21363-11163 Р of June 09, 2015
1. Founder (co-founder): Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
2. Type of publication: journal.
3. Publication status: domestic.
4. Title(s) of publication: Agriculture and Forestry.
5. Language(s) of the publication: Ukrainian, Russian, and English.
6. Spread: nationwide.
7. Categories of readers: students, postgraduates, scientists, employees of agroindustrial complex, state bodies of management.
8. Program goals (basic principles): questions of technology and efficiency of crop cultivation, scientific and industrial aspects of agronomic specialties, ecology and forestry.
9. Estimated periodicity of issue, volume (in conventional printed sheets) and format of publication: twice a half year, 7.5-15 conventional printed sheets, format: A4.
10. Legal address of the founder: 21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna Street, 3; telephones: (0432) 56-03-13; 35-70-84, fax: (0432) 43-80-25; e-mail:
11. Location of the editorial office: 21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna Street, 3.
12. Type of publication by purpose: agriculture and forestry, scientific production.
History of journal:

Journal History:

Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded  in 1995;  it was entitled as  Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.

In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.

It has been named as Agriculture and Forestry since 2015.

Listed in the updated list of scientific professional editions of Ukraine on agricultural sciences under the name Agriculture and Forestry (Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of May 16, 2016; No. 515).