FORMATION OF BUSHINESS OF SPRING TRITICALE VARIETIES DEPENDING ON THE PREDECESSOR AND FERTILIZER
Pelekh Liudmyla Viktorivna – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Agriculture, Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Vinnytsia National Academy of Sciences (21008, Vinnytsia, 3/2 Solnechna St., e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ).
Zabarnyi Oleksii Serhiyovych – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Seeds marketing manager BASF T.O.V. LLC (21007, Vinnytsia, Zaporizka St. 4, e-mail: email@example.com).
The article highlights the influence of precursors and levels of mineral fertilization on the formation of productive bushiness of spring triticale of different varieties. Depending on the influence of meteorological factors and weather, the influence of the studied elements of winter triticale cultivation technology, the indicators of the level of bushiness changed. The highest productive bushiness was formed by plants in the variants in which the best conditions were created for this. Triticale is an artificially bred crop that has not been studied enough in the global economy and requires research, but in Ukraine it is a well-known crop that takes its share in the overall crop structure. For example, the use of different norms of nitrogen fertilizers on the background of P60К60 contributed to an increase in the number of productive stems per unit area, and, accordingly, in the productive bushiness in general. When applying phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (P60К60), the number of productive stems did not exceed 585-591 pcs./m2, and the productive bushiness was 1.58-1.59, respectively. Triticale consumes a lot of nutrients from the soil to form a crop, which requires additional fertilization. It is not customary to apply organic fertilizers to this crop. only under its predecessors. Depending on the soil fertility, 60 to 90 kg of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are applied. Phosphorus and potash fertilizers are scattered under the main cultivation. And nitrogen fertilizers are divided into three fertilizing sessions during the phases of active plant growth. Experts also advise to apply superphosphate 10-15 kilograms per hectare during sowing with seeds. Triticale is very sensitive to sowing dates, which roughly coincide with the middle of the optimal sowing period for winter wheat. For sowing, it is necessary to select seeds with a germination rate of at least 92% and a purity of at least 98%. Treatment with compositions designed for winter wheat has a good effect on the yield. In most farms, the crop is sown using intensive technology in a row with the skipping of technological paths. Some farms use a cross-row or narrow-row sowing method. The seeding rate is usually between 1.5 and 5.5 million germinating grains per hectare. The recommended sowing depth is 4-6 cm, reduced on heavy soils and increased by 1-2 cm on light soils. By selecting the best predecessors, namely soybeans, sunflower and corn, we created optimal conditions for the productivity of this crop. In addition, mineral fertilizers had a positive effect on the formation of bushiness of spring triticale.
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Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded in 1995; it was entitled as Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
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According to the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine from 17.03.2020 № 409. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry is included in the List of scientific professional publications of Ukraine Category "B" in agricultural sciences (specialties) - 101, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206.