FEATURES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE GENUS FORSYTHIA VAHL. IN CONDITIONS OF THE VINNYTSIA NATIONAL AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY BIOSTATIONARY
Matusiak Mikhailo – candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Аssociate Рrofessor of the Department of Forestry, Landscape Gardening, Horticulture and Viticulture of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna St. 3. e-mail: email@example.com)
The analysis of the results of phenological observations on 7 phases, which reflect the main moments of seasonal development of plants, was carried out: 1 – the beginning of vegetation, which is characterized by budding and appearance of a cone of leaves; 2 – from the end of the growing season until the phase of massive leaf fall; 3 – the beginning of shooting; 4 – the end of shoot formation; 5 – the beginning of flowering; 6– flowering completion; 7 – massive ripening of fruits. To compare the rhythm of introducers’ development in the new conditions, the European Forsythia, as the most adapted to our conditions variety, was chosen. It was established that under our conditions the vegetation period of Forsythias begins at the late March – early April, when the average daily temperature does not exceed +4 0C, that is, at the general period of vegetation beginning of woody plants. Most of the varietie sunder study start their vegetation by April, 3, when, according to the long-termaverage data, the growing season usually begins. The sum of positive temperatures above 0 0C during this period ranges from 3.2 to 17 0C. Forsythia Ovata begins to vegetate a bit later.
As a result of the research, we have determined that at Forsythias under study the shoot formation began in the third decade of April – the first decade of May. This corresponds to the11.5-18.7 0C average air temperature, with a 25.6-29.8 0C sum of active temperatures above zero. According to duration of the period of shooting and its completion, we have attributed the studied Forsythias to the group with a short (up to 115 days) growth period. According to our observations, in Vinnytsia the flowering periods of Forsythia lasts averagely for 13-15 days. The shortest flowering period – 13 days – was observed at the Forsythia Ovata. The period of fruit formation in the studied Forsythia varieties is rather short (from 18 to 32 days) and depends on the sum of temperatures, terms of the variety flowering, its geographical origin and systematic position. As a result of the conducted observations, 30% of the annual shoots tips of the Forsythia Suspensa (up to 10-15 cm) were found damaged, but this did not cause a loss of decorativeness, since this species has a high growth rate (50-90 cm), thus there is no reason to claim its complete winter intolerance and low perspectives for its growing. Forsythia Ovata was not bitten by the frost, annual shoots of Forsythia Europaea was slightly frostbite during the frosts at the end of March 2019 at the level of 15% (5-6 cm). Study of the given species showed that all the Forsythia plants introduced in the territory of the VNAU biostationary show regular growth of shoots, satisfactory level of winter hardiness, formation of seeds capableof germination in Vinnytsia conditions (F. Sus. var. Sieboldii, F. Sus. var. Fortunei).
1.Goncharenko B. V. (2014). Dekorativno-listyani vidi ta kultivari rodu Forsythia Vahl u dendrariyi natsionalnogo botanichnogo sadu im. M. M. Grishka NAN Ukrayini [Deciduous species and cultivars of the genus Forsythia Vahl in the arboretum of the National Botanical Garden. M.M. Grishko NAS of Ukraine]. Introduktsiya roslin – Introduction of plants. № 1. 79-83 [in Ukrainian].
2.Goncharenko B. V. (2009). Perspektivi vikoristannya vidiv ta kultivariv rodu forzitsiya (Forsythia Vahl.) u zelenomu budivnitstvi v Pravoberezhnomu lisostepu Ukrayini [Prospects for the use of Forsythia Vahl. Species and cultivars in green building in the Right-bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine]. Introduktsiya roslin – Introduction of plants. № 1. 68-72 [in Ukrainian]
3.Kokhno N. A., Kurdiuk A. M. (1994). Teoretycheskye osnovy y opyt yntroduktsyy drevesnykh rastenyi v Ukrayne [Theoretical foundations and experience of the introduction of woody plants in Ukraine]. K.: Naukova dumka. [in Russian].
4.Lapyn P. Y., Sydneva S. V. (1973). Otsenka perspektyvnosty yntroduktsyy drevesnykh rastenyi po dannym vyzualnykh nabliudenyi [Evaluation of the prospects for the introduction of woody plants according to visual observations]. M.: Yzd. Hl. bot. sada AN SSSR. 61-67. [in Russian].
5.Kalinichenko O. A. (2003). Dekorativna dendrologiya: navchalniy posibnik [Decorative dendrology: a textbook]. K.: Vischa shkola. [in Ukrainian]
6.Kohno M. A., Kuznetsova S. I. (2007). Istoriya introduktsiyi derevnih roslin v Ukrayini (korotkiy naris) [History of the introduction of woody plants in Ukraine (short sketch)]. К.: Fitosotsiotsentr. [in Ukrainian]
7.Lipa A. L. (2006). Introduktsiya ta aklimatizatsIya derevnih roslin na Ukrayini [Introduction and acclimatization of woody plants in Ukraine]. K.: Vischa shkola. [in Ukrainian]
8.Minchova N. (2000). Forzitsiya v Prage [Forsythia in Prague]. Tsvetovodstvo – Floriculture. № 2. 12-13. [in Russian]
Topics of the Journal:
Program goals (basic principles): questions of technology and efficiency of crop production, scientific and industrial aspects of agronomic specialties, ecology and forestry.
Articles on such scientific problems are accepted for printing:
Plant production, current state and prospects for development.
Agrochemistry and modern aspects of fertilizers and biologically active substances application.
Feed production, current state and prospects for development.
Selection, seed production, seed science and varieties.
Protection of plants.
Soil managment and soil quality improvement.
Forestry and gardening.
Vegetables and mushrooms, current status and development trends.
Ecology and environmental protection.
Theory and history of agricultural sciences and forestry.
Modern directions of development of arable land and forestry.
Innovative and investment activities in agriculture and forestry.
Directions and efficiency of crop production
Bioenergy resources of crop production and forestry.
Production of renewable energy from biological resources.
Organic farming, the main area of development and production of organic products.
Agriculture and modern crop rotation and soil cultivation.
Horticulture and viticulture.
Processing and storage of crop products.
Beekeeping, current status and development trends.
Contemporary biological research in crop production and forestry.
Progressive technologies of the agricultural complex.
Psychological and pedagogical problems of agrarian education.
The young scientist opinion.
Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded in 1995; it was entitled as Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
It has been named as Agriculture and Forestry since 2015.
Listed in the updated list of scientific professional editions of Ukraine on agricultural sciences under the name Agriculture and Forestry (Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of May 16, 2016; No. 515).