FEATURES OF APPLICATION OF BIOPREPARATIONS FOR CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOMS ON STRAW SUBSTRATE
Vdovenko Sergiy Anatolyevich – Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor of the Department of Landscape Management, Forestry Horticulture and Viticulture of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsya, Soniachna St., 3 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Polutin Olexiy Oleksandrovich – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Landscape Management, Forestry Horticulture and Viticulture of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsya, Soniachna St., 3 e-mail: Jamberberis@gmail.com).
The world’s population consumes a significant amount of mushrooms each year. Beginners in mushroom growing are considered to be the Chinese, who at the beginning of our era learned to grow different species of basidiomycetes. Today, Ukraine has a significant potential for the development of mushroom growing: there are the necessary raw materials for substrates and still unoccupied premises. Research institutions preserve a unique collection of high-yielding strains, and specialized laboratories produce high-quality seed mycelium. The article is devoted to the study of the influence of biologicals on the productivity of oyster mushrooms of the common strain K-12 during intensive cultivation on a straw substrate. Based on research, it is established that the use of biologicals as an adjunct to the substrate affects the growth processes of the fungus. Biometric indicators of fruit body weight with the use of azotophyte or phytocyde exceeded the indicators of fruit body weight grown on the substrate, where the biological product was not used by 2,0 g, and the diameter of the cap was inferior to 2,0 and 6,0 mm, respectively. Fungi obtained on the substrate without the use of the biological product were characterized by a shorter leg length compared to the variant using azotophyte by 3,0 mm, and exceeded the test value by 4 mm using phytocyde. From the use of azotophyte or phytocide, the diameter of the stem of the fruiting body decreases to 12,0-15,0 mm.
Carrying out of timely agrotechnical actions promotes reception of a qualitative harvest of fruit bodies of an oyster mushroom. Before harvesting, the fruiting bodies were characterized by a typical shape and inherent color of the cap and were in technical maturity. The cap of the fruit body did not crack, was not damaged by pests, and its humidity was 65,0-68,0 %. The activity of the bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus subtilis has an effect on the productivity of strain K-12, they stimulate the formation of more primordia. With the use of Azotophyte or Phytocide, the yield increases by 22,0 and 18,0 %. The total yield of oyster mushroom consists of two waves of fruiting. The yield of the first wave of fruiting is 2,3 times higher than the yield of the second wave of fruiting. The use of Azotophyte helps to increase the yield of the first wave of fruiting fungus by 2,2 kg / 100 kg of substrate, and phytocide – by 1,8 kg / 100 kg of substrate.
The use of Azotophyte or Phytocyde as an additive to the substrate is economically advantageous: the net profit increases by 32 and 24 %, and the level of profitability - by 1,2-1,1 times, respectively.
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Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded in 1995; it was entitled as Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
It has been named as Agriculture and Forestry since 2015.
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According to the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine from 17.03.2020 № 409. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry is included in the List of scientific professional publications of Ukraine Category "B" in agricultural sciences (specialties) - 101, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206.