ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF GRAIN PRODUCTS OF AGROCENOSIS ON THE CONTENT OF PESTICIDAL RESIDUES UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE FOREST RIVER STEPPE
Yakovets Liudmyla – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant, Department of Botany, Genetics and Plant Protection of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, (21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna St. 3, e.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
The article presents the results of ecotoxicological assessment of grain production of agrocenosis according to the content of organochlorine pesticides. The aim of the research is the ecotoxicological assessment of the grain production of agrocenoses by the content of pesticide residues in the conditions of the forest-steppe right-bank. Field studies were conducted on the territory of agricultural enterprises of Shargorodsky, Peschansky and Kalinovsky districts of Vinnitsa region, located in the forest-steppe right-bank. Laboratory analyzes of soil, grain and seeds of field crops of agroecosystems were carried out in certified laboratories (Scientific-measuring agrochemical laboratory of Vinnitsa National Agrarian University and the laboratory of the testing center of Vinnitsa branch of the State Institution «Soil Protection Institute of Ukraine»). The studies determined the danger of contamination of grain products of agrocenosis with pesticides and their negative impact on the soil-plant system.
The research results showed that due to the resource-saving level of chemicalization when growing field crops, the average humus content in the soils of right-bank forest-steppe agroecosystems was 188.8.131.52 %, nitrogen, which is easily hydrolyzed . 63.0-77.0 mg/kg, mobile phosphorus . 120-180 mg/kg, exchange potassium . 68-94 mg/kg, while the hydrolytic acidity was 2.5-3.5 mg. equiv. / 100 g of soil and pH (salt) . 5.0-7.2. The agrochemical parameters of soils of agroecosystems, where intensive levels of chemicalization of agriculture are used, the elemental content, in particular in the available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, was 1.4-1.6 times higher, but the hydrolytic acidity was almost halved and the soil pH increased. It was found that when growing winter wheat using resource-saving technologies, the pesticides load per 1 ha of agroecosystem is 3.53 l/ha, and for intensive technologies – 4.73 l/ha.
When growing spring barley, respectively, 3.53 l/ha and 4.03 l/ha, and corn - 0 and 0.85 l/ha. In general, the cultivation of winter wheat by intensive technologies causes an increase in pesticides load per 1 ha of agroecosystem by 25.4 % compared to resource-saving technology, the cultivation of spring barley by 12.4 %, and corn by 98.8 %.
It was established that in the forest ecosystems of the right-bank steppe at different levels of chemicalization of agriculture, the actual fluctuations in the agrochemical parameters of the soil depended on the field and predecessor crop rotation, and the content of organochlorine pesticide residues differed within the error and did not exceed their maximum permissible concentrations. The content of residual trace amounts of ã - HCH in the grain and seeds of the studied cultures was less than 0.02 mg/kg with a MPC of 0.5 mg/kg, DDT . less than 0.02 mg/kg with a MPC of 0.2 mg/kg.
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Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded in 1995; it was entitled as Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
In 2010-2014 was enritled as Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.
It has been named as Agriculture and Forestry since 2015.
Listed in the updated list of scientific professional editions of Ukraine on agricultural sciences under the name Agriculture and Forestry (Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of May 16, 2016; No. 515).