CURRENT STATE AND PROSPECTS OF MAIZE GROWING IN UKRAINE
Didur Ihor – Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (21008, Vinnytsia, Soniachna Str. 3, е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Bogomaz Serhii Oleksandrovych is a graduate student of the Department of Agriculture, Soil Science and Agrochemistry of VNAU (21008, Vinnytsia, 3 Sonyachna St., e-mail).
Over the past decades, the area of corn sowing in Ukraine has more than doubled and is now about 5 million. The analysis of statistical data shows that from 2011 to 2022, the sowing and harvesting area in Ukraine increased from 3,543.7 thousand ha to 4,200 thousand ha. Analyzing the level of grain yield from 2011 to 2022, it should be noted that favorable hydrothermal conditions occurred in 2016, 2018, 2019, 2021 − respectively 6.6; 7.84; 7.19; 8.01 t/ha. The years 2012, 2015, 2017 and 2020 were less favorable for the hydrothermal regime,the level of corn productivity was 4.79; 5.71; 5.51; 5.62 t/ha. 2018 - 35,801 thousand tons, 2019 - 35,880 thousand tons, and 2021 - 39,819 thousand tons turned out to be record-breaking for the production of gross corn grain, which is primarily due to the level of yield of corn hybrids in these years. One of the important factors in the formation of a high yield of corn is the plant nutrition system, in which the share of influence is 30-40%. A number of domestic and foreign scientists in different soil and climatic zones investigated the effectiveness of the corn fertilization system due to the main and foliar application of mineral fertilizers and microfertilizers. However, such studies must be improved taking into account new forms, application rates, terms of application according to the stages of organogenesis and maturity groups of corn hybrids and their biological requirements. So, with the aim of optimizing the technological methods of growing corn and finding ways to increase the productivity level, we have established a three-factor field experiment: Factor A - hybrids: 1. DKS 3795 (FAO 250); 2. DKS 3972 (FAO 300); DKS 4351 (FAO 350).Factor B - sowing rates: 1. 60 thousand/ha; 2. 65 thousand/ha; 3. 70 thousand/ha. Factor C - Fertilizer: 1. Control (without fertilizer); 2. N-100, P-31 (background); 3. Background + Zinc sulfate; 4. Fon+ Ecoorganic Zinc; 5. Background + Zinc sulfate + Ecoorganic Zinc; 6. Background + Zinc sulfate + Ecoorganic Boron; 7. Background + Zinc sulfate + Eco-organic Zinc + Eco-organic Boron.
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Scientific journal "AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY" was founded in 1995; it was entitled as Bulletin of Vinnytsya State Agricultural Institute.
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According to the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine from 17.03.2020 № 409. Journal of Agriculture and Forestry is included in the List of scientific professional publications of Ukraine Category "B" in agricultural sciences (specialties) - 101, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206.